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Monday, May 9, 2011

Biography of Nikolai Tesla

Biography of Nikolai Tesla



On the post time in we will present one of the inventors in the field of electromechanical named Nikolai tesla. he's one of Engineering and the inventor. He was Nikolai Tesla. The discovery of the invention are many and have been patented. Tesla is regarded as one of the most important inventors in history and was one of the largest engineering in the late 19th century and 20th century. Tesla was a pioneer electromechanical, without wires, and electrical power. One of the inventions that are useful to date is the current invention Alternate Current (AC).
Nikola Tesla was born in Smiljan, Croatia on July 10, 1856. He became a U.S. citizen in 1891 while working in the country. Tesla was a genius. He was able to visualize the mind with detail without the aid of a blueprint and calculation. Tesla studied at the Technical University of Graz, Austria, and the University of Prague. In addition, he is a man full of ideas, even for mewujudkanya he rarely stayed up late, until old age when Tesla rata2 sleep only about 2-3 hours, and the majority of her sleeping on the couch.
Alternate Current
He sees the program operated power plant as a generator when this principle is reversed, it will be a principle of electric motors, and from this observation he was thinking how to use an alternating current or alternating current (AC). Thanks to the discovery that we can enjoy the power that is used every time and every time. AC current has advantages when compared with DC current.
To get the power supply of AC current source, the Tesla also makes power from Niagara Falls. Expensive project is funded by many people tajir at the time. When November 16, 1896, the Niagara plant is able to turn on the electricity from Buffalo until the street lights in New York.
Tesla Coil He got the idea of ​​High Frequency Electricity, he began experimenting with light bulbs. which he thought could be more bright and reliable than the cuman edison lamp uses 5 percent of energy supplied reply. Experiments to produce what we know as the Tesla Coil. Lights Photorontgent He also found Photorontgent lights, lights used for X-Ray. and he took pictures of himself with a lamp for the experiments. Inventors Who Actually Radio? The discovery of the Tesla coil, a result that the electrical signals on the same frequency can be captured and multiplied. and delivery of electrical signals through the resonance can be done. In early 1895, Tesla managed to transmit a radio signal up to a distance of 50 miles. but now are studying further the potential for laboratory accidents makes his laboratory burned and temuanya. In the UK A study of the Italian Guglielmo Marconi Wireless Telegraphy. Invention patented in London in 1896. Tools that only use two circuits with transmission distance is very close. Very much when compared with temaun Tesla. After that he perfected penemuanya wear Tesla oscillator, to send signals across the strait Channel. Tesla himself penemuanya finish in 1897, and recently received the patent in 1900. and patent Marconi signed on November 10, 1900 and rejected by the U.S. side. U.S. patent office states are finding Marconi radio. When Marconi received the Nobel in 1911, Tesla was angry and demanding Marconi. But lack of money makes this case won by Marconi. But Marconi then sue the U.S. government for use without the permission of Radio during World War 1. USA government and then prioritize the Tesla invention of radio, and declare Marconi plagiarism. unfortunately this happens in 1943, 4 months after Tesla died. Remote Control 1898, at Madison Square Garden, Tesla demonstrated Penemuanya. A boat that floats above a large aquarium that he says is moved using a radio signal through a remote control from the timber. This is the basis of Robotics, remote control and missile control. Many people are amazed at his discovery. Moreover, he controlled without using cables. Tesla Cosmos In Colorado Springs the evening, Tesla found that the transmission in the transmitter. He said it seemed from Outer space and he sent a reply that is directed to the planet Mars. In 1899 the scientists do not believe it, but the frequency of the received tesla approximately 1610.6 Mega Hertz. is the frequency emitted by all cosmic material temperature above -459 degrees Fahrenheit. ***** That he was scientist, engineer and inventor of my favorite. There are so many other inventions. What do you think?
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Tuesday, May 3, 2011

Alexander Bain

Alexander Bain - Inventor of Fax Machine

 
In this post we will present the biography of the inventor of a facsimile machine that is starting to grow rapidly. following coverage. Alexander Bain (born October 1811 - died January 2, 1877 at age 65 years) is a clock and instrument maker from Scotland. He patented his ancestors fax machine, and he was recognized as the inventor of the fax machine. He is a versatile inventor and engineer who later set up the first telegraph line along the railway line between Edinburgh and Glasgow. Alexander Bain was born in Watten, Caithness, Scotland and died in Kirkintilloch and was buried in Old Cemetery aisle.
Basic technology behind the fax has been around for over 150 years. Alexander Bain created the first fax machine in 1843. He believed that the symbols used in Morse code can be implemented visually, not just by hearing, and therefore will be used to send other types of information.
Bain, clock maker, used the knowledge to design and patent the basic concept is the basis of the modern fax machine. The idea to use electrical signals generated by the telegraph operator was a big step in telecommunications. In the Bain, the signals will pass through the type of paper soaked in a chemical. The signal then will cause the chemicals to evaporate, leaving a long or short signal in Morse code. This sign allows for faster information delivery and allows him to make the recording press-hole that allows for automatic transmission and reception. This device is known, although not nearly wide enough, as the telegraph "chemistry."
Of course, in the days of fax could not be sent with the way they are now. Telegraph signal is the first successful fax machine that can send messages to regulate electrical current. Continuing improvements in miniaturization, manufacturing and printing plants are the way to jump-start the fax machine technology that is currently using the millions, even billions, of times each day.
Because the fax machine dates back further than you might think, it really should be considered one of the biggest milestones in the history of communication. Technology of the fax machine is built on technology then-current telegraph. Telegraph wires are used to send their "chemistry first" fax. Transmission over telephone lines is not possible in 1843, due to the fact that the phone is not even found during the 30 years or more!
The basic concept behind the fax machine ("fax" senders of documents) is to send a fax, a copy of the "exact" advances in technology and other discovery has led to the evolution of our modern fax machine, which still maintains. The original concept of Alexander Bain. The idea is that you can scan images, graphics or text, and image scans may be interpreted as a signal to the box that turned on or off. That is, the information will appear as light (off) and dark (at) the point to the recipient's fax machine mechanic at the receiver, which then prints the image.
Fax machines started to become very popular in 1983 when the International Consultative Committee Telephonique et Telegraphique (or CCITT Group 3) establish a standard protocol for fax. The CCITT is an organization that sets international communications standards, and certainly become the standard fax ahead of time. Fax machines quickly become commonplace in the business world. They immediately liked Bly to send legal documents and many businesses will not be any other way. Although he has reduced due to the use of email and other technologies, many businesses depend on to today's fax technology.
Even into the 1990s, a large fax machine, large and difficult to manage. This technology enables compact, fax machines are user-friendly and cheaper to come. Ten years ago, $ 500 is considered cheap for a fax machine. These days, you can easily find, whether plain-paper making machine for about $ 50. Additionally, faxes are now part of the technology "all in one" printer, so that the device starts at the same price point now comes with the ability to fax, scan, print and copy, all for one low cost.
Although fax machines have been around for years and is widely used, seems to fax over the Internet has fast become a very popular means of information transmission. The fact that the Internet can transmit information at high speed speed makes it more convenient and easier for people to exploit. These days, more and more offices and people get rid of their fax machines to take advantage of Internet fax devices.
However, the fax machine is not a thing of the past first, and the ability for computers to send and receive faxes with a fax machine means people can connect with a users computer and fax users. Many people still use fax machines daily and easy to see why. They offer a very rapid transfer of information and more accurate communication between people and business.
Fax machines have definitely come a long way. It was once considered a center of modern technology because it is able to transmit and replicate reams of important documents from anywhere in the world. Although more and more people turn to Internet fax, fax machine is still regarded as a very important part of technology.
Seeing how far we've come up with the way we send and transmit information, it is interesting to note how we have a fax machine so far. It has become an important element in all aspects of international communication, both business and personal. Without it, and Internet-enabled version, we also send us documents through the Pony Express. Faxing helps the world go 'round, literally!
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Thursday, April 21, 2011

Inventor Steam Engine

Biography of James Watt
 

James Watt was born January 19, 1736 died August 19, 1819, Scottish, a mathematician, inventor of the steam engine engineer who became the momentum of development of the Industrial Revolution in England. He was born in Greenock, Scotland, lives and works in Birmingham, England. Documentation of his work is now being stored in the library of Birmingham.
Watt centrifugal central adopted to regulate the speed of the steam engine. (This is used to adjust the wind and watermills.) He finds a parallel motion linkage (mechanical engineering) | link to convert circular motion to estimate straight-line movement and vapor indicator diagram for measuring vapor pressure in the cylinder during the engine cycle, thereby indicating the efficiency.
Watt was instrumental in developing the steam engine so that it becomes an economical means of power generation. Watt developed a separate condenser chamber that significantly improve efficiency. He also made further improvements to the steam cylinder, double-acting machine, counters, indicators, and the throttle valve steam engine that makes more effective.
Watt opposed the use of high pressure steam, which made some of the steam engine technicians and other experts until its patent expires in 1800. With his partner Matthew Boulton he struggled against rival engineers such as Jonathan Hornblower who tried to develop a similar machine. He introduced a unit called the horsepower to compare the power output of the steam engine, the version of the unit which is equivalent to 550 pounds feet per second (about 745.7 watts).
James Watt steam engine model of many converted since become the most efficient machine that is very supportive in the development of industry in the UK. Steam engine also supports the advancement of transportation in the future, such as steamships and locomotives. To appreciate the services here are a few preservation namnya:

   
1. Unit of electrical quantities using the name (watts)
   
2. His name is also immortalized the name of the university (University of Edinburgh Heriot-Watt)
   
3. He is also remembered by the Lunar Society moonstones with perpetuating in a sculpture.
   
4. A reputable school in Birmingham is also using its name
   
5. There are 4 universities in Scotland that use his name James Watt College in Kilwinning (North Ayrshire Campus) and Greenock (2 in Greenock, Finnart Campus and the Waterfront Campus) 


source : http://www.biografitokohdunia.com
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Tuesday, April 5, 2011

Optic Fenomena by Al Kindi

Biography of Al Kindi

In this post we will try to discuss about one of the world's scientists in the field of physics in the 19th century AD expert work of physics is that the optical phenomenon that is translated into the Latin language which gives greater influence to Roger Bacon. following his biography notes.
Al Kindi (born: 801 - died: 873), can be said is the first philosopher who was born from among the Muslims. During his life, but can speak Arabic, he is fluent in Greek as well. Many of the works of Greek philosophers, translated in Arabic, among other works of Aristotle and Plotinus. Unfortunately there is a work that translated Plotinus as essays by Aristotle and berjudulkan Theology of Aristotle, so that in future there is little confusion.
Al-Kindi came from the nobility, from Iraq. He came from Kindah tribe, living in Basra and died in Baghdad in the year 873. He was a major figure from the Arabs who became a follower of Aristotle, which has affected the concept of al-Kindi in various doctrines of thought in science and psychology.
Al Kindi wrote many works in various fields, geometry, astronomy, astrology, arithmetic, music (which is built from various principle arithmetic), physics, medicine, psychology, meteorology, and politics.
He distinguishes between the active intellect with intellect passive intellect be actual of the form itself. Discursive argument and demonstrative action he saw as the influence of the third and fourth intellect. In ontology he tried to retrieve the parameters of existing categories, which he introduced in five parts: a substance (material), shape, motion, place, time, which he calls a primary substance.
Al Kindi collect various encyclopedic works of philosophy, which is then solved by Ibn Sina (Avicenna), a century later. He is also the first character is faced with a variety of cruel acts and torture carried out by the nobles of the various religious-orthodox thinking is considered heresy, and in such tragic circumstances (of the great thinkers of Islam), al-Kindi to liberate themselves from the ruthless efforts that orthodox nobles.
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Saturday, March 26, 2011

Max Weber Biography

Biography of Max Weber
 
 Max Weber and His Wife
In this post we will try to discuss about the biography of the characters in the field of physics that is max waber. The following screenshot. Max Weber was born in Erfurt, Germany, April 21, 1864, came from middle-class family. An important difference between both parents have a big impact on intellectual and psychological development orientation Weber. His father was a bureaucrat who is relatively important political position, and become part of an established political power and as a result, distanced himself from any activity and and idealism that require personal sacrifice, or who may pose a threat to his position in the system. Besides the father is a man who likes worldly pleasures and in this case, also in many other respects, it contradicts with his wife.
Marx Weber's mother was a devout Calvinist, women who attempt to live a life concerned (asetic) without pleasure like a very into her husband's dream. His attention focused mostly on aspects of the life hereafter; he is troubled by the imperfections are considered a sign that he is troubled by the imperfections are considered a sign that he was not destined to get salvation in the afterlife. Profound differences between the two couples of their marriage is causing tensions and these tensions have a major impact on the Weber.
Because not possible to equate themselves to the carriage opposite her parents, the small Weber then faced with a clear choice (Marianne Weber, 1975:62). At first he chose the orientation of his father's life, but then more and more interested in living close to the orientation of the mother. Whatever the choice, the tension generated by the need to choose between the opposite pattern was negatively affecting psychiatric Weber. When Weber's 18-year-old ran away from home, studying at the University Heildelberg. Weber has demonstrated intellectual maturity, but when he entered the university is still relatively underdeveloped and shy in the mix.
This property is quickly changed when he was leaning on his father's lifestyle and join a rival student groups student groups father first. Socially, she begins to develop, in part because used to drink beer with his friends. Moreover, he proudly exhibited grater from a fight that became stamped such student fraternity. In this case, Weber did not just show his true identity with his father's view of life but also at that time chose a career in law like his father.
After a three-semester college Weber left Heidelberg for military service and in 1884 he returned to Berlin, to his parents' house, and studied at the University of Berlin. He remained there nearly 8 years to complete up to receive his Ph.D. studies, and became a lawyer and began teaching at the University of Berlin. In the process his interest shifted to the economy, history and sociology of the targeted attention for the rest of his life. Over the past 8 years in Berlin, his life still depends on her father, a situation which immediately did not like. At the same time he switched closer to her mother's values ​​and antipathy toward increased. He then took the lives concerned (ascetic) and focus entirely to the study.
For example, during one semester as a student, his work habits are described as follows: "He kept practicing the rigid work discipline, set his life on the division of the hours of daily routine activities into the appropriate sections for different things. Frugality by the way, the dinner itself dikamarnya with 1 pound of beef and 4 pieces of fried eggs "(Mitzman, 1969/1971: 48; Marianne Weber, 1975:105). So, by following his mother, Weber undergo austerity, diligent, eager to work, high in modern terms is called Workaholic (workaholic). This high morale led Weber became a professor of economics at the University of Heidelberg in 1896.
In 1897, when Weber developing an academic career, his father died after a bitter quarrel between them. Soon Weber began to show symptoms that culminated in safaf disorders. Often can not sleep or work, and the next six or seven years passes in a state of near total destruction. After a blank period of time, some of his strength began to recover in 1903, but new in 1904, when he gave his first lecture (in America) which then lasted for 6.5 years, Weber began to be able to re-active in academic life in 1904 and 1905 he publish one of his best. The Protestant ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. In this work the influence of religion Weber announced his mother at an academic level. Weber spent much time to study religion in private even though he was not religious.
Despite continuously plagued by psychological problems, after the 1904 Weber capable of producing some very important work. He published the results of his study of world religions in a historical perspective of the world (eg China, India, and ancient Judaism). By his death (June 14, 1920) he wrote a very important work, Economy and Society. Although the book was published, and has been translated into several languages, but in fact this work was not completed. Besides writing volumes of books in this period, Weber also made a number of other activities. He helped found Germany Sociological Society in 1910.
His house was used as the center of an expert meeting of the various branches of science including sociology, such as Georg Simmel, Alfred, and the philosopher and literary critic Georg Lukacs (Scaff, 1989:186:222). Weberpun active in political activity were the days. There was tension in Weber's life and, more importantly, in his work, between bureaucratic thinking as reflected by his father and his mother's religious sentiments. This unresolved tension permeates the work of Weber and his personal life.
Reference:
- Http://doktorpaisal.wordpress.com/2009/11/24/biografi-max-weber/


Source: http://kolom-biografi.blogspot.com/2011/03/biografi-max-weber.html
rearrange : heru's 
Posted on 10:15 PM / 5 komentar / Read More

Sunday, March 13, 2011

Biography of Al-Haytam

 Optic Theory from Al-Haytam


In this post we will discuss about the biographies of Islamic scholars in the field of physics with the discovery of the theory of optimism. He is ibn Haytam. Here's his explanation. Through the Book of Al Manadhir, optical theory was first described. Until 500 years later, al-Haytham's theory was quoted many scientists.
Not many people know that the first person to explain about the mechanisms of vision in humans - which became the basis of modern optical theory - is the origin of the Iraqi Muslim scientist. His name is Ibn al-Haitam or in the West is known as Alhazen. Through his scientific work, Kitab al Manadhir or Book of Optics, he explains the various kinds of light phenomena including the human visual system.
For more than 500 years, the Book of Al Madahir continue to survive as the most important book in the science of optics. In 1572, his works translated into Latin under the title Opticae Thesaurus.
Chapter three examines the first volume of his ideas about light. In the book, Haytham believes that the rays of light out of the straight line from any point on a luminous surface.
He made a very careful experiment on the path of light through various media and discovered the theory of refraction of light. He, too, who did the first experiments on the spread of light on a variety of colors.
In the same book, he describes the range of light that appears at sunset, and also theories about various physical phenomena like shadows, eclipses, and also the rainbow. He also attempted to explain binocular vision and provide the correct explanation of the increased size of the sun and the moon when near horizon.
Haytham listed his name as the first to describe all the details of the human senses of vision. He gave a scientific explanation of how the man can see. One popular theory is that when he broke the vision put forward the theory of two Greek scientists, Ptolemy and Euclid.
Both of these scientists claim that humans can see because there is light coming out of eyes on the object. In contrast to both, Ibn Haytham correcting this theory by stating that it dilihatlah objects that emit light which is then captured the eye so that it can be seen.
In this book, he explains how the eye can see objects. He explained that the visual system ranging from performance nerves in the brain until the performance of the eye itself. He also explains in detail the parts and functions of the eye such as the conjunctiva, iris, cornea, lens, and explain the role of each of the human vision.
One of his most menomental is when Haytham with his student, Kamal ad-Din, for the first time investigate and record the phenomenon obsecura camera. This is the underlying performance of the camera currently used human race. By Webster's dictionary, this phenomenon literally interpreted as "dark room". Usually the shape of cardboard with small holes for entry of light.
While in his book Mizan al-Hikmah, he discussed the density of the atmosphere and build a correlation between them by a factor of altitude. He also studied atmospheric refraction and find the fact that the twilight only appears when the Sun is 19 degrees below horizon. With this basis, he tried to measure the height of the atmosphere. In his book, he also discusses the theory of mass appeal, a fact which shows that she realized the correlation with the acceleration of gravity.
In addition to the field of physics, Ibn Haytham also make an important contribution to the science of mathematics. In this science, he developed analytical geometry by establishing the relationship between algebra and geometry.
Haytham also create a book on cosmology that was translated into Latin and Hebrew in the Middle Ages. Another masterpiece is a book about evolution, which until now remains a concern of scientists the world.
Unfortunately, from so many of his works - his book is estimated at approximately 200 more - just a few terisa. Even his monumental work, The Book of Al Manadhir, no longer known rimbanya. One can only learn the translation, written in Latin.
Ibn al-Haytham (965-1039) Full Name: Abu Ali Muhammad ibn al-Hasan Ibn al-Haytham Alias ​​Name (West): Alhazen Origin: Basra, Iraq. The theory developed by: optics, refraction of light Scientific works: Kitab al-Manazir (Book of Optics).
Facts Optics Theory Registered: Isaac Newton in the 17th century developed a theory about lenses, light and prisms forms the basis for the modern theory of optics Fact: In the 11th century al-Haytham has developed a theory of optics. Not tertututp possibility, Newton's theory is affected by it, because in the Middle Ages, the theory is very famous. His work is widely cited European scientist. During the 16th century to 17, Newton and Galileo combined the theory with their findings.
Recorded: Isaac Newton, in the 17th century, the convergence theory of light, discovered that white light consists of various colors of light.
Fact: Al Haytham (XI century) and Kamal ad Din (XIV century) had expressed the same thing. Newton was not the only scientist who claimed that theory.
Recorded: British scientist Roger Bacon (1292) proposed the first time about the utility of glass lenses to aid vision. The lens is a simplified form of the work of al-Haytham. At the same time, the glass eye was made and used in China and Europe.
Fact: Ibn Firnas from Spain has been making glass eyes in the 9th century. He makes and sells to all of Spain two centuries earlier.
Posted on 7:21 AM / 1 komentar / Read More
 
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